Clinical Laboratory Tests
Normal Values

This table lists reference values for the most common laboratory tests and is intended for interpretation of the results as they are provided in the examinations. Note that all values are provided in SI units. All values apply to adults.

Many important laboratory reference values are not listed here, because of the less frequent use of these tests. Such values are inserted in parentheses following the result recorded in the examination questions.

Coagulation (Hemostasis) Back to Top
Bleeding time (Ivy) < 9 minutes
International Normalized Ratio (INR) 0.9-1.2
Partial thromboplastin time (PTT) 28-38 seconds
Prothrombin time (PT) 10-13 seconds
Hemogram Back to Top
Hematocrit (Hct)
  Female 0.370-0.460
  Male 0.380-0.500
Hemoglobin (Hb)
  Female 123-157 g/L
  Male 130-170 g/L
Mean corpuscular volume (MCV) 80-100 fL
Mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) 27-34 pg
Platelet count 130-400 X 109/L
Red blood cells (RBC)
  Female 4.0-5.2 X 1012/L
  Male 4.4-5.7 X 1012/L
Red cell distribution width (RDW) 11.5-14.5%
Reticulocyte count 20-84 X 109/L
Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (Westergren)
  Female < 10 mm/hour
  Male < 6 mm/hour
White blood cells & differential Back to Top
White blood cell count (WBC) 4-10 X 109/L
Segmented neutrophils 2-7 X 109/L
Band neutrophils <0.7 X 109/L
Basophils <0.10 X 109/L
Eosinophils <0.45 X 109/L
Lymphocytes 1.0-4.0 X 109/L
Monocytes 0.1-1.0 X 109/L
Chemical Constituents Back to Top
Albumin (serum) 35-50 g/L
Alkaline phosphatase (serum) 38-126 U/L
Aminotransferase (transaminase) (serum)
  Alanine (ALT; SGPT) 17-63 U/L
  Aspartate (AST; SGOT) 18-40 U/L
  Gamma-glutamyl transferase
    Female 10-30 U/L
    Male 10-48 U/L
Ammonia (plasma) 9-33 µmol/L
Amylase (serum) <160 U/L
Base excess -2 to +2 mEg/L
Bicarbonate (HCO3) (serum) 24-30 mmol/L
Bilirubin (serum)
  Direct (conjugated) <7 µmol/L
  Total <26 µmol/L
C-reactive protein <8 mg/L
Calcium (serum)
  Total 2.18-2.58 mmol/L
  Ionized 1.05-1.30 mmol/L
Chloride (serum) 98-106 mmol/L
Cholesterol (serum) <5.2 mmol/L
Low density lipoprotein (LDL) <3.37 mmol/L for low risk
Low density lipoprotein (LDL) <2.0 mmol/L for high risk
High density lipoprotein (HDL) >0.9 mmol/L
Cortisol 160-810 mmol/L
Creatine kinase (CK) (serum) 20-215 U/L
Creatinine (serum)
  Female 50-90 µmol/L
  Male 70-120 µmol/L
  Female 11-307 µg/L
  Male 24-336 µg/L
Folic (Folate) >15 nmol/L
Glucose fasting (serum) 3.3-5.8 mmol/L
Random glucose 3.8-11.1 mmol/L
Hemoglobin A1C 4-6%
Iron (serum) 11-32 µmol/L
Lactate (serum) 1-1.8 mmol/L
Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) (serum) 95-195 U/L
Lipase (serum) <160 U/L
Lithium 0.6-1.2 mmol/L
Magnesium (serum) 0.75-0.95 mmol/L
Osmolality (serum) 280-300 mmol/kg
Oxygen saturation (arterial blood) (SaO2) 96-100%
PaCO2 (arterial blood) 35-45 mm Hg
PaO2 (arterial blood) 85-105 mm Hg
pH 7.35-7.45
Parathyroid hormone (PTH) 1.6-9.3 pmol/L
Phosphorus (inorganic) (serum) 0.8-1.5 mmol/L
Potassium (K) (serum) 3.5-5.0 mmol/L
Prolactin 4-30 µg/L
PSA (Prostate Specific Antigen) 0-4 µg/L
Protein (serum)
  Total 60-80 g/L
  Albumin 35-50 g/L
Sodium (Na) (serum) 135-145 mmol/L
Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) 0.4-5.0 mU/L
T3 (free) 3.5-6.5 pmol/L
T4 (free) 8.5-15.2 pmol/L
Total Iron Binding Capacity (TIBC) 45-82 µmol/L
Transaminase - see Aminotransferase
Triglycerides (serum) <1.7 mmol/L
Troponin T (TnT) <0.01 µg/L
Urea nitrogen (BUN) (serum) 2.5-8.0 mmol/L
Uric acid (serum) 180-420 µmol/L
Vitamin B12 133-674 pmol/L

Cerebrospinal Fluid Back to Top
Cell count <10 x 106/L
Glucose 2-4 mmol/L
Leucocytes 0.5-106/L
Lymphocytes 0
Polymorphs <5 x 106/L
Proteins (total) 0.20-0.45 g/L

Urine Back to Top
Calcium <7.3 mmol/day
Chloride 110-250 mmol/day
Creatinine 6.2-17.7 mmol/day
Osmolality 100-1200 mOsm/kg
Potassium 25-120 mmol/day
Protein <0.15 g/day
Sodium 25-260 mmol/day